Weight management

Why is the hydroxyl group acidic? Why is the hydrocarbon group not acidic?

Because the electronegativity of the oxygen atom in the hydroxyl group is strong, it is easy to seize the electrons of the hydrogen atom, and the hydrogen atom is free, so it is acidic, while the electronegativity of the carbon atom in the hydrocarbon group is not enough to seize the electrons of the hydrogen atom, so it is not acidic.

skin care routine hydroxy acids

In inorganic substances, those that usually contain hydroxyl groups are oxy acids or their acid salts.

Substances containing hydroxyl groups dissolve in water and ionize hydrogen ions, so the aqueous solution of substances containing hydroxyl groups is mostly acidic.

In the system nomenclature of organic chemistry, the simple hydrocarbon group followed by the hydroxyl group is called an alcohol, while sugars are mostly polyhydroxyl alters or ketones.

Hydroxy acid structural formula?

Hydroxy acid

Compounds containing both hydroxyl-OH and carboxyl-COOH in the molecule. According to their structures, they can be divided into aliphatic hydroxy acids and aromatic hydroxy acids.

Basic Information

Chinese Name

Hydroxy Acid

Foreign Name

hydroxyacid

Classification

Aliphatic Hydroxy Acid and Aromatic Hydroxy Acid

Characteristics

Contains both hydroxyl and carboxyl groups

Properties

Compound

Definition

Hydroxy acid General formula

Hydroxy acid

Compounds containing both hydroxyl-OH and carboxyl-COOH in the molecule.

Classification

According to its structure, it can be divided into two categories: aliphatic hydroxy acids and aromatic hydroxy acids.

Aliphatic hydroxy acids

Aliphatic hydroxy acids, also known as alkyd acids, can be divided into: (1) α-hydroxy acids, such as α-hydroxy propionic acid (lactic acid), when heated, the dimolecular acid can remove the dimolecular water to form an ester. (2) β-hydroxy acids, when heated, the molecular acid can remove the molecular water to form an unsaturated acid. For example, β-hydroxy butyric acid can be dehydrated to form butenic acid. ( 3) Gamma-hydroxy acids and delta-hydroxy acids, etc., such as gamma-hydroxy butyric acid OH – CH2CH2CH2COOH, when heated, the molecular acid removes a molecule of water to form a lactone. Aliphatic hydroxy acids are generally crystals that are easily soluble in water, and their melting point and solubility in water are higher than those of corresponding fatty acids. There are both alcohol reactions and acid reactions.

Phenolic acids

Phenolic acids contain hydroxyl groups on the aromatic nuclei (phenyl rings or fused phenyl rings) in aromatic hydroxy acids. For example, phenolic acids can participate in various reactions unique to acids and phenols, and can also perform reactions such as halogenation, nitrification, and sulfonation.

Properties

α-Hydroxy Acid (QIANGJISUAN)

That is, the hydroxyl group is located at the α position (the carbon atom directly connected to the carboxyl carbon atom). The -COOH interaction of this type of hydroxy acid is more active and has strong reductivity, and can even occur silver mirror reaction. (General textbooks only introduce that aldehyde groups can undergo this reaction, but it is not true.) After being heated, it is easy to dehydrate the two molecules into rings, resulting in ester.

β-Hydroxy Acid

Classification Ditto, the two groups in this category are not active enough, but for them, the H at the carbon site between the two carbon sites is both α-H, and the two H’s of the molecule are both active H, so they are also very active, but this substance does not undergo silver mirror reaction. After being heated, it is prone to intramolecular dehydration to form unsaturated acids.

γ-Hydroxy Acid and δ-Hydroxy Acid

After being heated, it is prone to intramolecular dehydration into rings to form lactones

.

ε and above hydroxy acids

After heating, it is easy to lose water and grow chains between molecules (linear polycondensation)

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