Weight management

What is a body wrap cloth?

A body wrap cloth is a type of baby wrap cloth, usually made of long strips of fabric that can be folded and tied around a baby’s body to form a pouch that will allow the baby to sit comfortably inside.

what are the guidelines for healthy weight management

Traditional baby wrap cloth is suitable for newborns, babies and young children, depending on the child’s weight and the manufacturer’s guidelines. In addition to the body wrap cloth, babies can also use other types of baby carriers, such as wrapping harnesses and sling vests. The designs of these harnesses vary, and the type that best suits individual needs can be selected.

Public Basic Knowledge of Nursing

Public Basic Knowledge of Nursing

1. Which parts of blood are composed of? What components do they include?

Answer: Blood is composed of two parts: blood cells and plasma. Blood cells include: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Plasma includes: water, plasma proteins (albumin, globulin and fibrinogen), inorganic salts (Na , K , Ca , Mg , Cl-, etc.), non-protein organic substances (amino acids, urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose, lipids), etc.

2. How much is the total blood volume of an adult’s body weight?

Answer: The total amount of blood in an adult accounts for about 7-8% of the body weight. For example: a person weighing 60 kilograms, the total amount of blood is about 4200-4800 milliliters.

3. What is the plasma crystal osmotic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure?

Answer: The osmotic pressure formed by electrolytes, glucose, urea and other small molecule crystal substances in plasma is called crystal osmotic pressure; the osmotic pressure formed by macromolecular substances such as plasma proteins is called colloid osmotic pressure.

4. What is an isotonic solution, a hypotonic solution, and a hypertonic solution?

Answer: A solution equal to the plasma osmotic pressure is called an isotonic solution. Such as 5% glucose solution or 0.9% sodium chloride solution.

A solution lower than plasma osmotic pressure is called a hypotonic solution. Such as distilled water, etc.

A solution higher than plasma osmotic pressure is called a hypertonic solution. Such as 10% glucose solution or 50% glucose solution, etc.

5. What is the physiological function of red blood cells?

Answer: The main function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, and to buffer changes in pH in the blood.

6. What are the steps in the blood coagulation process?

Answer: It can be roughly divided into three steps: prothrombin complex formation, thrombin formation and fibrin formation.

7. What is the basis for ABO blood type typing?

Answer: It is divided into four basic types according to the difference or presence of agglutinogens (ie blood group antigens) contained in the red blood cell membrane. Where the red blood cell membrane contains only A agglutinogen is type A, only B agglutinogen is type B, A and B agglutinogens are both type AB, and those without A and B agglutinogens are type O.

8. Why should cross-matching be done for transfusion of the same type of blood?

Answer: Because there are subtypes in the ABO blood group system, there are also other blood group systems. Although they belong to the same blood group antigen, they still have certain differences in structure and performance. Therefore, blood transfusion of the same type can still appear coagulation reaction. Cross-matching must be done first to ensure the safety of blood transfusion. At the same time, cross-matching can also play a role in reviewing blood types.

9. What is blood circulation?

Answer: The heart beats rhythmically, driving blood to flow in a certain direction.

10. What is the physiological significance of blood circulation?

Answer: When the blood passes through the pulmonary circulation, it absorbs fresh oxygen and excretes carbon dioxide; when it passes through the portal circulation, it transports nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract to the liver; when it passes through the renal circulation, it excretes various metabolites and excess water in the body; it also transports special chemical products (such as hormones, etc.) from certain organs in the body to various parts of the body.

11. What is the output per stroke? What is the output per stroke in a normal adult?

Answer: The output per stroke refers to the amount of blood output from each contraction of one ventricle. In a quiet state, the output per stroke in a normal adult is about 70 milliliters (60-80 milliliters).

12. What are the characteristics of myocardium?

Answer: Myocardium has the following four characteristics:

(1) Automatic rhythm;

(2) Conduction;

(3) Excitability;

(4) Contraction.

13. What is blood pressure?

Answer: Blood pressure refers to the lateral pressure exerted by the blood flowing in the blood vessel on the blood vessel wall.

14. What are the factors that affect blood pressure?

(1) Stroke output;

(2) Heart rate;

(3) Peripheral resistance;

(4) Circulating blood volume and vascular volume;

(5) Elasticity of the arterial wall.

15. What is microcirculation? What is its basic function?

Answer: The blood circulation in the microvessels between the arterioles and veins is called microcirculation. Its basic functions are:

(1) To achieve material exchange, that is, to deliver nutrients to tissue cells and take away tissue cell metabolites;

(2) To regulate capillary blood flow, maintain arterial blood pressure and affect the distribution of body fluids inside and outside the blood vessels.

16. What are the components of microcirculation?

Answer: Microcirculation consists of seven parts: arterioles, posterior arterioles, anterior sphincter of capillaries, true capillary network, blood capillaries, arteriovenous anastomosis branches and veins.

17. What is respiration? What are the interconnected links that make up the respiration process?

Answer: The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment is called respiration. It consists of the following four interrelated links:

(1) Lung ventilation, that is, the process of gas entering and leaving the alveoli;

(2) Lung ventilation, that is, gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood (the above two sections are collectively referred to as external respiration); (3) Blood-to-gas transportation;

(4) Tissue ventilation, that is, gas exchange between tissue cells and blood (also known as internal respiration).

18. What is intrathoracic pressure? How is it measured? What is the normal value?

Answer: The pressure in the pleural cavity is called intrathoracic pressure. Indirect methods are commonly used in clinical practice, that is, measuring the lower 1/3 intraesophageal pressure to indicate intrathoracic pressure.

Normal adult calm end-inspiratory is -5 to -10mmHg, and calm end-expiratory is -3 to -5mmHg.

19. What is the pH value?

Answer: The negative logarithm of hydrogen ions in a solution is called the pH value. It is an indicator used to represent the pH of a solution.

20. What is body fluid? How much is the total amount of body fluid in a normal adult body weight?

Answer: The total amount of intracellular and extracellular fluid is called body fluid. Normal adult body fluid accounts for 60% of body weight. The intracellular fluid accounts for 40% of the body weight, and the extracellular fluid accounts for 20% of the body weight (including plasma and intercellular fluid).

21. Do you need to do cross-matching when transfusing plasma?

Answer: There is no need to do cross-matching when transfusing plasma, because plasma does not contain blood cells and has no agglutinogen, so there will be no agglutination reaction.

22. What is digestion and absorption?

Answer: The process of food being decomposed in the digestive tract is called digestion. After digestion, the process of food passing through the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa and entering the blood or lymph is called absorption.

23. How are the digestive products of sugars absorbed?

Answer: Starch and glycogen in food are digested into monosaccharides (glucose), galactose and fructose and absorbed in the intestines, and then enter the blood mainly through the capillaries, and a small part enters the lymph.

24. What is the calorie value of food? What is the calorie value of sugar, fat and protein?

Answer: The energy released by the oxidative decomposition of 1 gram of food is called the calorie value of food. For example: 1 gram of sugar oxidation produces an average of 4.1 kcal, which is the calorie price of sugar; the calorie price of fat is 93 kcal on average; the calorie price of protein is 4.1 kcal.

25. What is basal metabolism? What is basal metabolic rate?

Answer: The energy metabolism of the human body in the basal state is called basal metabolism. The basal metabolism per unit time is called the basal metabolic rate

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